Bugarama Graben and Nyungwe National Park, Rwanda

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The EAPCE-23 Post Conference excursion to the Northern Circuit will be conducted for three days from 13th to 15th May, 2023. The excursion route will pass through the Neogene Lake Beds and older extrusive rocks that contain olivine basalts and volcanic tuffs in the Eastern branch of the East African Rift System. The delegates will be able to view the Gregory Rift System, the Engaruka Crater, Oldoinyo Lengai Mountain (Mountain of God), Lake Natron, the Oldupai Gorge (the locality of the Human Ancestor - Australopithecus boisei), the Shifting Sands, the famous Ngorongoro Crater and the Tarangire National Park.


The trip will also offer an opportunity to view an extensive exposure of the East African Rift System (EARS) which is one of the famous geologic wonders of the world, a place where the earth's diverging tectonic forces are presently trying to create new plates

A sketch map showing Geo-tourism sites in the Northern Circuit of Tanzania
A sketch map showing Geo-tourism sites in the Northern Circuit of Tanzania

 

12th MAY, 2023


The delegates will be picked up at Kilimanjaro International Airport and spend a night at Kibo Palace hotel.

 

Day 1: 13th MAY, 2023


The delegates will have breakfast at the Kibo Palace hotel, then drive from Arusha City to Makuyuni town where the delegates will have a far view of the Gregory Rift and the Manyara Lake. At this location, the delegates will closely view the exposed Oolitic and fossiliferous Limestone outcrops (Lake Beds). At Mto wa Mbu, delegates will have a close view of the Gregory rift escarpment.  
  

A close view of the Gregory fault escarpment at Mto wa Mbu area

 

Thereafter, the delegates will drive parallel along the plane of Gregory border fault to Engaruka. On the way, the delegates will be able to see the older volcanic rocks (basalts) and younger pyroclastic materials (ashes, tuffs and agglomerate). The delegates will stop at Engaruka Crater (Shimo la Mungu) where the stratigraphic succession of volcanic ashes are exposed. Few kilometers ahead, delegates will have a close view of the active Oldonyo Lengai Mountain (“The Mountain of God”), a mountain of Carbonatite volcanic composition.

Oldonyo Lengai, active Carbonate Volcanic Mountain
Oldonyo Lengai, active Carbonate Volcanic Mountain

 

The delegates will have a picnic lunch near Masamburai village and drive to Lake Natron to view a large group of Flamingos around the lake and view the Engare Sero Hominid footprints prior to driving back to Lake Manyara Serena Hotel for a night.

 

Lake Natron flanked by a big group of Flamingos.
Lake Natron flanked by a big group of Flamingos.

 

Day 2: 14th MAY, 2023


Delegates will have breakfast at Lake Manyara Serena Hotel, then drive to Oldupai Gorge, a very important site for anthropological history. It is a famous area for the fossils of early human evolution. At this area, delegates will see the skull and bones of earlier humankind and a very well preserved oldest sediment succession ranging from 2.1 Ma to 600,000 years ago.

An area around Olduvai Gorge showing a well preserved sedimentary 1.2 Ma - 600,000 years succession of sedimentary beds.
An area around Olduvai Gorge showing a well preserved sedimentary 1.2 Ma - 600,000 years succession of sedimentary beds.

 

The delegates will also have an opportunity to see the magical shifting sands and have an experience of cultural aspects of life styles in the wild with wild animals and the traditional houses from Maasai tribe at the Maasai Boma area.

Crescent shaped strongly magnetic shifting sands.
Crescent shaped strongly magnetic shifting sands.
Cultural Aspects of Maasai Tribe Maasai people
Cultural Aspects of Maasai Tribe Maasai people
Masai Boma
Masai Boma

 

On the way back, delegates will have a Game drive in the Ngorongoro Crater which is one of the seven world heritage sites. The delegates will have an opportunity to learn its geological evolution and be able to see the occurrences of both Salt and fresh water lake environments and Volcanic rocks within the Crater. Also, the delegates will see different wild animals grazing with Maasai domestic cows.


Delegates will have a picnic lunch inside the Crater near the fresh water Lake then drive outside the Crater along the rim of the Ngorongoro Crater and spend a night at Ngorongoro Crater Serena Hotel.

A view of Ngorongoro Crater and the lake within as seen from the rim of the crater.
A view of Ngorongoro Crater and the lake within as seen from the rim of the crater.

 

Day 3: 15th MAY, 2023


This is the last day of the field excursion. The delegates will have breakfast at Ngorongoro Crater Serena Hotel and head to Tarangire National Park where they will see the giant baobab trees, different bird species and plenty of wild animals such as elephants, lions, leopards, cheetahs, antelopes, gazelles, buffaloes, zebras and warthogs. The delegates will then drive straight to Kilimanjaro International Airport for departure in the evening.

 

Fees:
US$ 1,137 per person non – residents,
US$ 940 per person for East African residents

Includes meals, transport, accommodation and park entry fees. Final Fees to be confirmed based on the applicable fees during the period of May 2023.

NOTE: There will be a price reduction based on the number of delegates registered.

 

Contact:

Mr. Partick Kabwe,
Petroleum Geologist,
Tanzania Petroleum Development
Corporation
P.O. Box 2774, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Tel: +255 763 588290
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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12th - 14th  May, 2023

ITINERARY

A three (3) day post-conference field excursion to the southern Albertine Graben is planned to take delegates through the Semliki Basin and Lake Edward-George basin, with the magnificent Queen Elizabeth National Park.  The field trip will give the delegates the opportunity to observe the spectacular geology of these areas, visit the Sempaya hot springs and enjoy a tour of the Queen Elizabeth National Park.

Queen Elizabeth National Park
Queen Elizabeth National Park

 

DAY 1: Geology of Semliki basin

Semliki basin is a half graben controlled by Congo master fault. On the Uganda side, a flexural opposing fault system exists. Data that has been acquired by Government of Uganda (gravity and magnetic) and oil companies (seismic and well) show thick sediment accumulations (depocenter) of up to 4km around the southern end of Lake Albert (Ntoroko area). This sediment burial could have generated and migrated hydrocarbons from potential organic rich source rocks into the surrounding structures that have been mapped. The south of the basin is occupied by the Rwenzori mountains which is regarded as the source and/or barrier to sediment escape from Semliki basin. Pickford and Senut (1994) dated surface exposures from this basin to be of Middle Miocene to recent whereas conflicting ages of Early Miocene (Lukaye, 2009) and Early Pliocene (RPS Energy, 2008) have been suggested for the Turaco well sections on the basis of palynomorphs. Subsequent mapping by the Department of Petroleum Exploration and Production indicates that these sediments are fluvial lacustrine deposits that have been grouped into Nyabusosi, Nyakabingo, Nyabugoro, Oluka, Kakara, Kasande and Kisegi Formations based on lithological properties and depositional environment.

Stop 1: Kichwamba observation point and Mungu ni Mukubwa.

Generally, a trip to Semliki has the most marvelous and breath-taking views. You will experience the thrilling meandering Bundibugyo Road through the Rwenzori escarpments. At “Munguna Mukubwa” while in the mountains, the road offers scenic views of the meandering Semliki River, fuming hot springs and the tropical rain forest extending to Ituri forest in the DRC. From this point, you will also enjoy a view of the raised surfaces of relay ramp structures on the other side in the DRC side that resemble the Kaiso Tonya structures of Uganda.

Stop 2: Kibuku road cut and oil seep

Kibuku oil seep is located at the nose of Rwenzori mountains. At Kibuku, a characteristic paraffinic odour fills the atmosphere. The oil comes to surface through coarse to conglomeratic sandstone, which appears oil stained. Oil films cover most part of the Kibuku river and/or water pools during the dry seasons. The delegates will have an opportunity to discuss 120-150m good quality channel complexes exposed by the constructed road.

Kibuku oil seep and the road cut
Kibuku oil seep and the road cut

 

The medium-coarse grained well sorted sandstone demonstrates good reservoir characteristics within this part of the basin. The top most layer shows greenish-grey claystone. Weathered basement and basal conglomerates are other potential rocks.

Stop 3: Sempaya hot springs

The geothermal gradient within the EARS is obviously high as indicated by a vast number of hot springs. The geothermal gradient for the western arm of EARS is estimated at 67 to 73mW/m2. Estimates from Turaco have given 35oC/km. At Sempaya, hot water jets out at various locations resulting into clouds of steam in the area, at 100oC

Sempaya hot spring
Sempaya hot spring

 

Stop 4: Makondo fault

The Makondo fault is a NE-SW trending oblique slip fault dipping to the NW and displaying a transpressional positive flower structures at transfer zones. A horse tail structure is interpreted on Iknois satellite data from Semliki basin corresponding NE termination of Makondo fault.

After stop 4, delegates will drive and spend night in Fort Portal,


Makondo Fault
Makondo Fault

Day 2: The Geology of Lakes Edward and George basins

These basins represent the Southern domain of the Albertine graben and trends in the NNE-SSW being the dominant trend and the NNW-SSE trends being minor. The two sub-basins are generally two opposing half grabens with the major boundary fault on the Congo side, the NNE-SSW trending Lubero Fault controlling the area of maximum subsidence coincident with the present-day location of Lake Edward. Lake Edward is connected to lake George by Kazinga channel which is believed to be a remnant of an older river that drained westwards.

Delegates will depart from Fort Portal at 7.00am and drive to Lake Edward-George basins.

Stop 5 and 6: Bunyaruguru crater lakes

The Western arm of the East African rift system is essentially amagmatic. Volcanic provinces are aerially and volumetrically small leaving the majority of the western rift devoid of magmatism. In the Albertine graben, two volcanic provinces of quaternary age have been observed; the Katwe-Kikorongo and Bunyaruguru-Fort portal   provinces. At Bunyaruguru, several crater lakes and volcanic ash are evident.

One of the crater lakes in the basin
One of the crater lakes in the basin

The volcanic rocks mainly tuffs and ashes are beautifully exposed in the vicinity of the recent explosion craters as well as along the eastern basin margin faults. Some of the tuffs can be seen in some locations to have been folded by later Neogene compression regime.

Stop 7:  Ishasha-DRC Border Fault System

At this point, the delegates will be shown a series of surface expressions of tilted fault blocks that have been imaged by seismic data in the subsurface. The hydrocarbons Prospectivity of this basin will be discussed. Delegates will depart for a night in Mweya safari lodge.


Day 3:  Game drive in Queen Elizabeth National Park (8.00-11.00am)

Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP) covers an area of 770 sq. miles (1995sq.km). Road access from Uganda’s capital city of Kampala is 206 miles (420km). By air, it can be accessed through the landing strip at Mweya Safari Lodge for light aircraft or a larger airstrip at Kasese town. QENP lies in the fertile equatorial area that is especially scenic, with two lakes connected by a channel overlooked by a high peninsula. It also has volcanic craters, grassy plains and tropical forest with high biodiversity rating in the world. Formerly called the Rwenzori national park, QENP returned to its royal colonial name. The wide bio-diversity contains the most astonishing number of species-almost 100types of mammal and 606 different birds, with Kazinga channel alone housing the world’s largest concentration of hippos.

 

Climbing lions in QENP
Climbing lions in QENP

 

Other wildlife includes; warthogs, buffaloes, rare aquatic sitatunga antelopes, beautifully horned Uganda kob, giant forest hog, waterbuck, topi, elephant, leopard etc. Kyambura (or Cham-bura) gorge on the northern eastern boundary of the park has thick canopies and vines dangling down to the soft forest floor inhibited by chimpanzees. The maramagambo forest, south of the Kazinga channel is the home to large number of chimpanzees plus a number of other monkey species.

The pouting shoebill (or whale-headed) stork and myriad of other birds and mammals are best viewed from a boat on Kazinga channel. Specialties at QENP include a beautiful sunset over the water, warthogs and hippos mowing the lawn at the Mweya Safari Lodge, boat ride on Kazinga channel, chimpanzees in Kyambura/Chambura gorge and beautifully positioned safari lodges.

Delegates will set off for Kampala at 11am

Fees: US$900 per person.

Costs include transport, accommodation, meals and park fees. Delegates should ensure they carry appropriate field gear e.g. field boots.

Contact:

Tonny Sserubiri
Principal Geologist/Exploration
Petroleum Exploration, Development and Production Department
21-29 Johnstone Road. P.O. Box 9, Entebbe/Uganda
Office: +256 414 320714
Fax:     +256 414 320437
Mobile:   +256 781163590/703463009
Email:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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13th - 14th  May, 2023

 

DAY 1
 

Delegates will depart Kigali Serena Hotel and head south west to visit Bugarama graben and Hydrothermal manifestations (hot springs and the travertine deposit).  

(A) layered outcrop of carbonate rocks;  (B) and (C) Plant fossils
(A) layered outcrop of carbonate rocks; (B) and (C) Plant fossils
hot-springs
hot-springs

DAY 2

The next day, the excursion will take place at Nyungwe National Park. The mountainous region is teaming with wildlife, including a small population of chimpanzees as well as other species of primate, including Lhotse’s monkey endemic to the Albertine Rift. Memorable and photogenic moment will include walking up to the Isumo waterfall or along the Canopy Walk suspension bridge.

Isumo Falls
Isumo Falls


 

Fees: US$650 per person

Cost- will cover local transport, meals and access to excursion venues

Contact information:

Deogratias Dushime
Senior Petroleum Engineer
Rwanda Mines, Petroleum and Gas Board
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Cell-phone : +250785062807

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13th - 14th  May, 2023

ITINERARY

The Purpose of the field excursion will be to see the potential source and reservoir rocks within the Lamu basin. Delegates will be driven northwestwards from Mombasa along Mombasa Kilifi highway. Rock types to be encountered include the Mazeras Sandstone (potential reservoir), Maji ya Chumvi beds (potential source rocks) and the Taru Sandstones (potential reservoirs). The rock sequence will be from the youngest to the oldest. There will be several stops along Mombasa Road after which delegates will be driven through the Tsavo East National Park for a game drive.

 

 Giraffes at Tsavo National Park
Giraffes at Tsavo National Park

 

Day 1

Stop 1:  This will be at a road cut near Mazeras town to view an exposure of the Mazeras formation, one of the potential reservoirs in the Lamu Basin. The shale intercalation can act as a source and seal rock.
 

Stop 2: Delegates will be able to view the Maji ya Chumvi siltstones at one of the several small quarry sites near Maji ya Chumvi town.

 

Maji ya Chumvi beds contrast with the Taru grits by their dominance with the argillaceous components. They overlie the Taru grits with a slight disconformity. They are characterized by thinly bedded shales in silty sandstones or fine sandstones so that they easily split into slates or slabs along the shale partings.

Maji ya Chumvi siltstones are mined for use as dimension or decorative stone
Maji ya Chumvi siltstones are mined for use as dimension or decorative stone

 

Maji ya Chumvi beds can be divided into two series: the lower beds and the upper beds. The Lower beds consist of shales with variable colours that range from bluish, black, red brownish, and are comparatively easily eroded than sandstones. They form broad valleys along their strike with drainage pattern clearly illustrating variations in their lithological successions. The Upper series of the Maji ya Chumvi rocks start with the first appearance of siliceous sandstone beds as we pass upward from shales to silty shales.  In the south around Samburu town, soft yellow-coloured sandstones and hard yellow and white quartzitic layers are found interbedded with the soft blue micaceous shales.

 

Stop 3: At Taru Quarry. The Taru Grits Formation comprise of the Lower Duruma sandstones and are largely composed of four units namely Basal unit, the Arkose unit, the sandstone group, and the Calcareous unit. It is essentially a fluviatile formation derived directly from the Basement system rocks further west.

Taru Grits exposed at the Taru Quarry with interbedded carbonaceous shale
Taru Grits exposed at the Taru Quarry with interbedded carbonaceous shale
An example of a basal conglomerate of the  Karoo Formation exposed near Silaloni market, 40 k north of Samburu town on the main Mombasa –Voi highway.
An example of a basal conglomerate of the Karoo Formation exposed near Silaloni market, 40 k north of Samburu town on the main Mombasa –Voi highway.

 

Stop 4: Tsavo National Park was established on 1st April 1948 with an area of 21,812km. It is the largest Park in Kenya. In May 1948, Tsavo National Park was divided into East and West for administrative purposes. The two Parks are divided by Nairobi–Mombasa railway/ road. Tsavo East is a very popular park as is indicated by the high numbers of tourists visiting it per year. Some of the attractive scenic features includes large herds of game such as elephants, giraffes, zebras, antelopes, birds, reptiles, insects, and flora all worth watching. Delegates will spend the evening at Voi thereafter.

Group of Zebras at Tsavo National
Group of Zebras at Tsavo National

 

Day 2

Delegates will be driven from Voi towards Mombasa along Nairobi Mombasa highway for about 138km. There will be one stop along Mombasa Road after which delegates will be driven through Mazeras - Kaloleni - Kilifi Road.

 

Stop 1: Kaydee Quarry

A visit to the Kaydee Quarry where Mariakani sandstone rocks are mined to produce ballasts that is used for the roads and building construction industry.

Exposure of Mazeras Sandstones at Kay Dee Quarry showing good examples of planner and cross-bedded sandstones
Exposure of Mazeras Sandstones at Kay Dee Quarry showing good examples of planner and cross-bedded sandstones

 

Stop 2: At the Bridge between Mazeras and Kaloleni town to view an exposure of the Mariakani sandstone. Mariakani sandstone exposure is about 8km from the junction of Mombasa- Kaloleni tarmac road. It consists of massive, cross-bedded, quartzo-feldspathic sandstones and grits, with interbedded shales.  At the bridge a good exposure of sandstone incorporated with large, rounded clasts of mudstone which appear to have been preferentially weathered and washed away leaving remnants of hollow spherical voids or casts will be observed. In other areas some of these voids appear to have concentrated minerals like silica or calcites making up some hard-rounded concretions. Mariakani sandstones have a characteristic mottled appearance and on the outcrop level, it very well consolidated and has poor porosity.

 

Stop 3: The Jurassic Kambe Limestone Exposure.

 

The exposure is 17km from Kilifi-Mombasa tarmac road. The outcrop shows a calcarenite member of the Kambe Limestone with well bedded calcarenite facies that displays well exposed vuggy and dissolution voids as well as fracture porosities.  Kambe Limestone is one of the potential reservoir rocks in the Lamu Embayment. Other potential reservoir units include the Mazeras sandstone of the Permo-Triassic age (or Karroo), Frere town limestones (Cretaceous) and Tertiary rift carbonate buildups and fluvial/deltaic sandstones (of Tertiary age).

Jurassic Kambe Limestone Exposure showing characteristic karstic weathering surfaces and vuggy porosity development
Jurassic Kambe Limestone Exposure showing characteristic karstic weathering surfaces and vuggy porosity development

 

Stop 4: Haller Park (formerly Bamburi Nature Trail) is located south of the Bamburi cement plant along the Mombasa /Malindi highway. A product of the company’s efforts, since 1971, to convert barren landscape of disused limestone quarries into vibrant and diverse ecosystem of forest, grasslands, and ponds.

Haller Park
Haller Park

 

Currently, Haller Park plays host to a variety of wildlife including hippos, giraffes, buffalos, and antelopes as well as smaller mammals and birds.

 

The Park was the first recipient to be honoured with the United Nations Environmental Program Global 500 Roll of Honour award for the unique, ecologically sound, and successful rehabilitation undertaken.
 

Fees: US$900 per person

Cost- includes transport, accommodation, meals, and park fees. Delegates should also ensure that they have appropriate field gear e.g., field boots.

Contact:

Mr. Josky Kisali,
Senior Geologist
Ministry of Petroleum and Mining
Nyayo House, 22nd floor,
P. O. Box 51614 – 00100,
Nairobi, Kenya.
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Telephone: +254 20 310 112
Cell phone: +254720 116 524

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13th - 14th  May, 2023

ITINERARY

Day 1: Volcano sedimentary rocks

Delegates will depart at 09.00 am from Bujumbura to the hydrothermal water of Ruhwa in Cibitoke province. The distance from Bujumbura to that site is 67 km. At the site delegates will view the three hot springs whose temperature can reach 60 to 70°C.

Hot springs of Ruhwa
Hot springs of Ruhwa

 

The geological environment consists of volcano- sedimentary rocks. On the way back from Ruhwa, delegates will view Rukoko forest before arriving to the Rusizi Park which is located 13km from Bujumbura City. In this park there are various animal species and plants. This site is close to the mouth (outlet) of the Tanganyika Lake. Delegates will spend the night in Bujumbura Town.


Day 2: Germans Fault of Nyakazu

Germans Fault of Nyakazu
Germans Fault of Nyakazu

 

Delegates will depart from Bujumbura to the Southern source of Nile about 115km from Bujumbura, in Bururi Province. They will visit the faults of Germans and Karera water falls. After Karera, delegates will then depart to Gitega about 100km from Bujumbura, the second town of the country located in the middle of Burundi, where they will visit two sites, namely; Gitega National Museum, the Traditional drummers at Gishora site. Delegates will spend the night at Gitega Town.

Karera Waterfalls
Karera Waterfalls

Fees: US$750 per person.

Cost- will cover local transport, meals, access to Rusizi Park and accommodation.

Contact:

Mr Bigirimana Gérard,
Geologist
Ministry of Hydraulic, Energy and Mines
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Tel: +257 79 981634

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10th East African Petroleum Conference & Exhibition 2023 (EAPCE'23).
All Rights Reserved.

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